Life below water

Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97% of the Earth’s water, and represent 99% of the
living space on the planet by volume.

Globally, the market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year
or about 5% of global GDP.

Globally, the levels of capture fisheries are near the ocean’s productive capacity, with catches on the order of
80 million tons.

Oceans contain nearly 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers may lie in the millions.

Oceans absorb about 30% of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming.

Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 3 billion people depending on the oceans as
their primary source.

Marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people.

Subsidies for fishing are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species and are preventing efforts to save
and restore global fisheries and related jobs, causing ocean fisheries to generate US$ 50 billion less per year.

As much as 40% of world oceans are heavily affected by human activities, including pollution, depleted fisheries,
and loss of coastal habitats.

There are some 120 species of marine mammal to be found in the world, and a fourth of these may be found in India and
adjacent countries. More than 1 million people in 3651 villages of India situated along the coast are employed in marine
capture fisheries.


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